Wood, an abundant and renewable natural resource, is suitable for many types of building construction. Be it residential or non-residential, light frame or heavy timber frame, low rise or mid-rise, wood can be used in various building applications. This is because of the many benefits and positive attributes of wood. A versatile and often cost-effective building material wood can enable developers to build more quickly and more cheaply. Wood structures are strong, durable and resilient. They can be designed to resist major earthquakes and hurricane-like winds.
Wood can be used to build striking features like roofs, ceilings, walls and bridges, resulting in visually-appealing structures. Wood building materials are also good for the environment. They are renewable, biodegradable, recyclable, and they store carbon, resulting in a smaller environmental footprint than other building materials. Commonly used woodworking tools included axes, adzes, chisels, pull saws, and bow drills. Mortise and tenon joints are attested from the earliest Predynastic period.
These joints were strengthened using pegs, dowels and leather or cord lashings. Animal glue came to be used only in the New Kingdom period. Ancient Egyptians invented the art of veneering and used varnishes for finishing, though the composition of these varnishes is unknown. Although different native acacias were used, as was the wood from the local sycamore and tamarisk trees, deforestation in the Nile valley resulted in the need for the importation of wood, notably cedar, but also Aleppo pine, boxwood and oak, starting from the Second Dynasty.